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Cisco home lab setup

Welcome, This will be my last post here in Uptweet and I am moving to a blogging site specifically for Fiber Nexus. So let's make this blog a good one! Let's start off with setting up your home lab. Imagine when you first heard Fedex or UPS knock on your door and you see your boxes arrive. Love that feeling. I had a lab before but it was old and very problematic. I have 3 Cisco 3750 switches and 4 2811 routers now. They work like a charm and the switches are Layer 3 switches, which means that you can use routing protocols to route traffic instead of STP. STP can still be used when you attach more access layer switches to it but for now STP will not be used. I would highly recommend everyone to buy 3550s and better L3 switches because beginner students usually buy the 2950 or 2960 switches and they are too old and don't have the better capabilities as the Layer 3 switches. Since I only have 3 switches, I will need to buy a few more to copy the same design that Cisco recommends in a network. There are 3 layers, Core, Distribution, and Access. For now I have Core routers and Distribution/Access switches. Here is a picture of that design:The first thing I did after booting up the devices was to give them a host name and a username and password. Now remember, this is all basic configuration to get you started.  router(config)#hostname NexusEdge1.1NexusEdge1.1(config)#username fibernexus privilege 15 secret [password]NexusEdge1.1(config)#line vty 0 15 NexusEdge1.1(config-line)#login localNexusEdge1.1(config)#line console 0NexusEdge1.1(config-line)#login localAfter I am done securing my router, I want to connect my router with my cable modem to any port with a crossover ethernet cable. Then I go to the CLI and instead of adding an ip address to the interface connected to the cable modem, I make it request for an ip address using the ip address dhcp command as noted:NexusEdge1.1(config)#in f0/0NexusEdge1.1(config-if)#description Connected_CablemodemNexusEdge1.1(config-if)#ip address dhcpYou will see a prompt that it received an ip address from the cable modem. If you login to the cable modem configuration portal, you can actually configure it to where it will a provide a static ip so it won't change every week and you dont have to constantly figure out what is the new ip address. If you do add that static ip , you need to disable then enable the router's interface to get the new ip address. If your cable modem is wireless, you can telnet to your router with the ip address that it has assigned on the cisco router's interface without the console cable. Now that you can telnet and ping your router and cable modem with each other, you need to set up a default route and access list to your router to reach the internet. To do that you need to do the following: NexusEdge1.1(config)#access-list 101 permit ip 65.10.0.0 0.0.255.255 anyNexusEdge1.1(config)#ip nat inside source list 101 interface FastEthernet0/0 overloadNexusEdge1.1(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.1 (cable modem ip address)                        NexusEdge1.1(config)#ip route 65.10.0.0 (switch network) 255.255.0.0 65.10.1.2 (switch next hop ip address)The second ip route has the switch network range and it is pointing to the switch's ip address. I will explain later. Now once you created your default route, you need to enable NAT on both interfaces connected to the cable modem and the switch and add an ip address to the interface connected to the switch. NexusEdge1.1(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0 (connected to cable modem)NexusEdge1.1(config-if)#ip nat outNexusEdge1.1(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1 (connected to switch)NexusEdge1.1(config-if)#description Connected_NexusSwitch1.1_P24NexusEdge1.1(config-if)#ip address 65.10.1.1 255.255.255.0NexusEdge1.1(config-if)#ip nat insideTo make sure this works, ping google.com from your Cisco router and see if it works. If not you need to add a dns server that the cable modem provides through their configuration page or add the public dns server of 8.8.8.8NexusEdge1.1(config)#ip name-server 8.8.8.8If you can ping google.com then you have to add a routing protocol to communicate with your Layer3 switch:NexusEdge1.1(config)#router eigrp 65NexusEdge1.1(config-router)#passive-interface defaultNexusEdge1.1(config-router)#no passive-interface FastEthernet0/1NexusEdge1.1(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255NexusEdge1.1(config-router)#network 65.10.0.0 0.0.255.255NexusEdge1.1(config-router)#no auto-summaryNexusEdge1.1(config-router)#exitNow console into your switch and add the same username and password that we did in the beginning. Make the port connected to your Cisco router into a layer 3 routed port then add the ip address in the same subnet:NexusSwitch1.2(config)#ip routingNexusSwitch1.2(config)#in f0/24NexusSwitch1.2(config-if)#no switchportNexusSwitch1.2(config-if)#ip address 65.10.1.2 255.255.255.0Now add the same routing protocol you used in your Cisco router to your switch and add a default route pointing to your router interface and also add the dns server.NexusSwitch1.2(config)#router eigrp 65NexusSwitch1.2(config-router)#network 65.10.0.0 0.0.255.255NexusSwitch1.2(config-router)#passive-interface defaultNexusSwitch1.2(config-router)#no passive-interface f0/24NexusSwitch1.2(config-router)#no auto-summaryNexusSwitch1.2(config-router)#exitNexusSwitch1.2(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 65.10.1.1 (Router's interface ip connected to switch)NexusSwitch1.2(config)#ip name-server 8.8.8.8Ping google.com and it should work. You now have a switch and router connected with each other and also to the public internet. You can also telnet into your router and switch wirelessly. If you are having trouble with connectivity you can use the following commands to verify your connected neighbors and if there is a valid route in your routing table.show ip routeshow ip int briefShow cdp neighbors (find Device ID) Show cdp entry ( then look for device IP address)*        *Telnet [ip address]Show ip route eigrp show run If you have any issues with this please let me know and I will be able to assist you in the process either by Instagram @fiber_nexus or by email at [email protected] Thanks and I hope you have fun setting up your lab.

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Check out @SpellsofGenesis's Tweet: https://twitter.com/SpellsofGenesis/status/627048851766120448

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OSPF Virtual-Links & Point-to-Point

Welcome,I am here thinking of that one time I posted a video on Instagram about Virtual-Links but I did not post an explanation about it. Well today I wanted to give you an idea of what it is and how easy it is to implement. Also, I am throwing in here some Point-to-Point OSPF connections and how they are useful. I see many Point-to-Point OSPF links here at work so I wondered what the benefits are. Let's start off with what is a Virtual-Link. In OSPF, Area 0 is the backbone area of your network and every area must somehow connect to it directly. But what can you do if you add another OSPF area to an area that is not Area 0? Tricking OSPF. You have to make it think that it is directly connected to Area 0 so you must create a tunnel that skips the area between Area 0 and your foreign area. In the topology below, you see that I marked a "blue dotted tunnel" from Area 3, through Area 1, and connecting into Area 0. The way to do that is by adding a simple command to point to each others loopback address in the OSPF process. In this case, I used the command area 1 virtual-link 3.3.3.3 on R2 and area 1 virtual-link 2.2.2.2 on R3. I also added OSPF authentication as you can see. To make sure it works, you must see this notification: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 555, Nbr 3.3.3.3 on OSPF_VL2 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done. Once you see this adjacency you will be able to advertise traffic from Area 3 across Area 1 into Area 0. In this topology I added 2 Virtual-Links and made sure you can ping from R1 to R6 through several OSPF areas. This would happen if you have too many routers in OSPF Area 0 and Area 1. That is rare but it is good to know this command for your Cisco studies.Now let's talk about Point-to-Point OSPF links. The normal OSPF network you would probably learn from CCENT or CCNA is broadcast OSPF, which means you will have a Dedicated Router and Backup Dedicated Router, DR/BDR. If you see this topology, you might just want to not have a DR/BDR so you force OSPF to point to one direction only. You add the ip ospf network point-to-point command under the interface using OSPF. Now there are more differences between broadcast and point-to-point OSPF networks. Broadcast networks establish an adjacency much slower than point-to-point and generates around 50% more LSAs. This causes slow convergence as you can see in this chart:BROADCASTPOINT-TO-POINTNetwork:                  Hello:      DeadInterval:     Adjacency time:Broadcast                 10s              40s                  40sPoint-to-Point            30s             120s                2sAs you can see, the Hello & Dead Intervals for an OSPF Broadcast network is much faster! but it is much slower to make an adjacency. So how can you tweak that? Well you add the ip ospf network point-to-point command and also ip ospf hello-interval 10 & ip ospf dead-interval 40 commands under the interface. That way you will have the same Hello/DeadInterval time as a Broadcast network and an even better adjacency time than a broadcast network. Tweaking the times would make a Point-to-Point link really fast in all areas. You can see all the in the configs that I posted below regarding Virtual-Links and a Point-to-Point OSPF network. Well hopefully you learned something today and I will see you soon!###ROUTER 1###config t!hostname nexusrouter1!interface Loopback0 ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 ip ospf 555 area 3!interface GigabitEthernet1/0 ip address 78.86.1.1 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 cisco ip ospf network point-to-point ip ospf 555 area 3 ip ospf hello-interval 10 ip ospf dead-interval 40!router ospf 555 router-id 1.1.1.1 log-adjacency-changes area 3 authentication message-digest passive-interface default no passive-interface GigabitEthernet1/0 network 78.86.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 3 maximum-paths 32 endwr####ROUTER 2####config thostname nexusrouter2!interface Loopback0 ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.255 ip ospf 555 area 1!interface GigabitEthernet1/0 ip address 78.86.1.2 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 cisco ip ospf network point-to-point ip ospf 555 area 3 ip ospf hello-interval 10 ip ospf dead-interval 40!interface GigabitEthernet2/0 ip address 68.86.0.2 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 cisco ip ospf network point-to-point ip ospf 555 area 1 ip ospf hello-interval 10 ip ospf dead-interval 40!router ospf 555 router-id 2.2.2.2 log-adjacency-changes area 1 authentication message-digest area 1 virtual-link 3.3.3.3 authentication message-digest area 3 authentication message-digest network 78.86.1.2 0.0.0.0 area 3 network 68.86.0.2 0.0.0.0 area 1 end wr###ROUTER3###config thostname nexusrouter3!interface Loopback0 ip address 3.3.3.3 255.255.255.255 ip ospf 555 area 0!!interface gigabitethernet3/0 ip address 68.86.4.1 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 cisco ip ospf network point-to-point ip ospf 555 area 0 ip ospf hello-interval 10 ip ospf dead-interval 40!interface gigabitethernet2/0 ip address 68.86.0.1 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 cisco ip ospf network point-to-point ip ospf 555 area 1 ip ospf hello-interval 10 ip ospf dead-interval 40!router ospf 555 router-id 3.3.3.3 log-adjacency-changes area 0 authentication message-digest area 1 authentication message-digest area 1 virtual-link 2.2.2.2  network 68.86.0.1 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 68.86.4.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 endwr###ROUTER4###config thostname nexusrouter4!interface Loopback0 ip address 4.4.4.4 255.255.255.255 ip ospf 555 area 0!interface gigabitethernet3/0 ip address 68.86.4.2 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 cisco ip ospf network point-to-point ip ospf 555 area 0 ip ospf hello-interval 10 ip ospf dead-interval 40!!interface gigabitethernet4/0 ip address 68.86.3.2 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 cisco ip ospf network point-to-point ip ospf 555 area 2 ip ospf hello-interval 10 ip ospf dead-interval 40!router ospf 555 router-id 4.4.4.4 log-adjacency-changes area 0 authentication message-digest area 2 authentication message-digest area 2 virtual-link 5.5.5.5  network 68.86.3.2 0.0.0.0 area 2 network 68.86.4.2 0.0.0.0 area 0 endwr####ROUTER5####config thostname nexusrouter5!!interface Loopback0 ip address 5.5.5.5 255.255.255.255 ip ospf 555 area 2!!interface gigabitethernet5/0 ip address 78.86.2.1 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 cisco ip ospf network point-to-point ip ospf 555 area 4 ip ospf hello-interval 10 ip ospf dead-interval 40!interface gigabitethernet4/0 ip address 68.86.3.1 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 cisco ip ospf network point-to-point ip ospf 555 area 2 ip ospf hello-interval 10 ip ospf dead-interval 40!router ospf 555 router-id 5.5.5.5 log-adjacency-changes area 2 authentication message-digest area 2 virtual-link 4.4.4.4 authentication message-digest area 4 authentication message-digest network 68.86.3.1 0.0.0.0 area 2 network 78.86.2.1 0.0.0.0 area 4 endwr###ROUTER6####config thostname nexusrouter6!interface Loopback0 ip address 6.6.6.6 255.255.255.255 ip ospf 555 area 4!!interface GigabitEthernet5/0 ip address 78.86.2.2 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 cisco ip ospf network point-to-point ip ospf 555 area 4 ip ospf hello-interval 10 ip ospf dead-interval 40!!router ospf 555 router-id 6.6.6.6 log-adjacency-changes passive-interface default no passive-interface GigabitEthernet5/0 network 78.86.2.2 0.0.0.0 area 4 maximum-paths 32 endwr

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Fiber_Nexus: OSPF & MPLS lab

Welcome,I am glad you are here ready to learn a bit more today. I can honestly say learning and remembering all these networking protocols and commands are not easy. The biggest challenge in the real world is time. When you are hired for your first networking job whether its an entry level engineer job or an administrator, quick and timely decisions are very important! When there is an outage and your customers, clients, or even co-workers have no internet or voice service, time is your biggest challenge. You won't have much time to go over your notes to check and find what the issue might be before you have your customers asking for an update and requesting the network to be restored immediately. But at the end of the day, trial and error is the best teacher. With that being said, I wanted to talk about two very important protocols that many ISPs use, MPLS and OSPF. OSPF is the most popular routing protocol because it is not proprietary and it is very flexible. Just to remind new students, these protocols are just "rules" of how you want to route traffic within your network. The same way the streets and highways are designed with off-ramps, traffic lights, left turns, right turns, merges, and you have to follow the law or "rules" according to your city, that is the same way routing protocols are designed. The routers use highways of traffic with rules set in place so traffic can be routed smoothly, safely, and to it's destination. At the end of the day, it's up to you and the company to decide what " rules" you want to implement into your network. The same with MPLS, instead of making the routers verify each packet, it already knows what is the next destination based on its labels. I made this small lab so you can have an idea of how it works and how you can troubleshoot it in real life. Cell Backhaul has a similar setup although it is more advanced and I will add the rest of the configs with VRFs and mBGP next time. It is not the best design of course but at least you have an idea of how it is set up and what the commands look like. My best advice is to create a lab of your own changing the configs so you can practice the CLI commands better. Also, you would need to study and learn basic MPLS and OSPF if you haven't done so through Cisco's book and videos. Youtube and CBT Nuggets also have a lot of videos. In the picture below, that is the way the network is setup in GNS3 using the 7200 Cisco image. You would have to copy and paste each SMOP depending on the ###ROUTER### name and interface. If you are able to use the 7200 image with Gigabit interfaces, this should work smoothly. If not you can edit the SMOP based on what you have. Here are some basic show commands to use. Enjoy this lab!show mpls ldp neighbor show mpls ldp bindings show ip route ospfshow ip ospf int briefshow ip ospf neighborsshow ip ospf int#####ROUTER 1######!hostname nexusR1!ip cef!no ip domain-lookup!!mpls ldp router-id lo 0mpls label range 100 199mpls ip!interface Loopback0 ip address 61.61.1.1 255.255.255.255 ip ospf 60 area 0!!interface gigabitEthernet 1/0 description Connected_nexusR3 ip address 68.86.0.1 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 n3xu5 ip ospf hello-interval 5 ip ospf dead-interval 30 ip ospf 60 area 0 mpls ip no shut!interface gigabitEthernet 3/0 description Connected_nexusR4 ip address 68.86.3.1 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 n3xu5 ip ospf hello-interval 5 ip ospf dead-interval 30 ip ospf 60 area 0 mpls ip no shut !router ospf 60 router-id 61.61.1.1 passive-interface default no passive-interface gigabitEthernet 2/0 no passive-interface gigabitEthernet 3/0 mpls ldp sync mpls ldp autoconfig area 0 log-adjacency-changes area 0 authentication message-digest network 68.86.0.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 network 68.86.3.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 end wr######ROUTER 2######!hostname nexusR2!ip cef!no ip domain-lookup!!mpls ldp router-id lo 0mpls label range 200 299mpls ip!interface Loopback0 ip address 61.61.1.2 255.255.255.255 ip ospf 60 area 0!!interface gigabitEthernet 2/0 description Connected_nexusR3 ip address 68.86.1.1 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 n3xu5 ip ospf hello-interval 5 ip ospf dead-interval 30 ip ospf 60 area 0 mpls ip no shut!interface gigabitEthernet 4/0 description Connected_nexusR4 ip address 68.86.2.1 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 n3xu5 ip ospf hello-interval 5 ip ospf dead-interval 30 ip ospf 60 area 0 mpls ip no shut !router ospf 60 router-id 61.61.1.2 passive-interface default no passive-interface gigabitEthernet 2/0 no passive-interface gigabitEthernet 4/0 mpls ldp sync mpls ldp autoconfig area 0 log-adjacency-changes area 0 authentication message-digest network 68.86.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 network 68.86.2.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 end wr#####ROUTER 3#####!hostname nexusR3!ip cef!no ip domain-lookup!!mpls ldp router-id lo 0mpls label range 300 399mpls ip!interface Loopback0 ip address 61.61.1.3 255.255.255.255 ip ospf 60 area 0!!interface gigabitEthernet 2/0 description Connected_nexusR2 ip address 68.86.1.2 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 n3xu5 ip ospf hello-interval 5 ip ospf dead-interval 30 ip ospf 60 area 0 mpls ip no shut!interface gigabitEthernet 1/0 description Connected_nexusR1 ip address 68.86.0.2 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 n3xu5 ip ospf hello-interval 5 ip ospf dead-interval 30 ip ospf 60 area 0 mpls ip no shut !router ospf 60 router-id 61.61.1.3 passive-interface default no passive-interface gigabitEthernet 2/0 no passive-interface gigabitEthernet 1/0 mpls ldp sync mpls ldp autoconfig area 0 log-adjacency-changes area 0 authentication message-digest network 68.86.0.2 0.0.0.0 area 0 network 68.86.1.2 0.0.0.0 area 0 end wr######ROUTER 4##########!hostname nexusR4!ip cef!no ip domain-lookup!!mpls ldp router-id lo 0mpls label range 400 499mpls ip!interface Loopback0 ip address 61.61.1.4 255.255.255.255 ip ospf 60 area 0!!interface gigabitEthernet 3/0 description Connected_nexusR1 ip address 68.86.3.2 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 n3xu5 ip ospf hello-interval 5  ip ospf dead-interval 30 ip ospf 60 area 0 mpls ip no shut!interface gigabitEthernet 4/0 description Connected_nexusR2 ip address 68.86.2.2 255.255.255.252 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 n3xu5 ip ospf hello-interval 5 ip ospf dead-interval 30 ip ospf 60 area 0 mpls ip no shut !router ospf 60 router-id 61.61.1.4 passive-interface default no passive-interface gigabitEthernet 4/0 no passive-interface gigabitEthernet 3/0 mpls ldp sync mpls ldp autoconfig area 0 log-adjacency-changes area 0 authentication message-digest network 68.86.2.2 0.0.0.0 area 0 network 68.86.3.2 0.0.0.0 area 0 end wr

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